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Mixing Technologies

Reliability and Technology in Mixing

Mixing Technologies Overview

As globally recognized brands known for innovation in designing and manufacturing fluid agitation equipment and systems, Chemineer, Kenics, Greerco, and Prochem offer high-quality service and proven reliability that fit right in with our FMS portfolio. Trust us to provide fluid-handling solutions to meet your operational needs and specifications.

Mixing Technology Quick Links



Water Treatment

Municipal water treatment facilities use continuous mixing to process drinking water for municipalities. There are a variety of sources for drinking water and therefore different processing steps for the water. Each process uses rotating and static mixing to treat the water for human consumption.

Chemineer agitators and Kenics static mixers are used throughout the treatment process to optimize performance, minimize downtime, and maintain plant effluent within permitted limits. 


  • Rapid/Flash Mixers
  • Flocculators
  • Carbon Mixers
  • pH Control
  • Chlorine Mixers
  • Lime Slurry

Wastewater Treatment

Municipal wastewater treatment facilities use biological, physical, and chemical processes to treat wastewater such as runoff, human waste, and industrial waste.  Removing chemical and biological contaminants before discharging into the environment is the main function of the plant.

Chemineer agitators and Kenics static mixers are used throughout the treatment process to optimize performance, minimize downtime, and maintain plant effluent within permitted limits. 


  • Anoxic Mixers (Denitrification)
  • Flash/Rapid Mixers
  • Carbon Mixers
  • Flocculators
  • Sludge Mixers/Conditioning
  • Digesters (Aerobic/Anaerobic)
  • Aeration
  • Polymer Mixers
  • Lime Slurry
  • Scum Mixers
  • Equalization Mixers
  • Neutralization Mixers

Flue Gas Desulfurization

FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization) involves the treatment of flue gas from coal fired power plants. The main goal is to remove sulfur, particulates, and other chemicals such as mercury from the flue gas prior to environmental release. Governmental regulations by the EPA put limits on the amount of impurities which can be released into the air. The use of mixers to clean and scrub the flue gas is used to help power companies meet permitted limits on the release of controlled substances.

Chemineer and Prochem rotating agitators and Kenics static mixers are utilized in the FGD process. Top entering and side entering units help scrub the flue gas and mix the slurries needed to process and treat the gas. Static mixers are used in the process and in the ducts of power plants to mix and homogenize continuous processing streams.


  • Absorbers (Scrubbers)
  • Ball Mill Slurry
  • Limestone Slurry
  • Cyclone/Filter Feed
  • Sumps
  • Thickener Underflow
  • Wastewater

Corn Wet Milling

Corn refiners process corn into different components such as starch, germ, fiber, and gluten to process it further for a variety of applications. Mixing and agitation is central to the performance of a corn wet milling plant.

Corn wet milling products include starches, sweeteners, alcohols, gluten meal, proteins, and corn oil. Further processing and fermenting of starch and sugars in the mill or specialty plants produce value added products such as amino acids, ethanol, proteins, and polylactic acid, used in bio-degradable plastics.

Chemineer agitators and Kenics static mixers are used throughout the corn wet milling process. Chemineer, a global leader in agitators and static mixers, designs for fermentation processes have evolved over the years to provide increased capability to producers.


  • Steepwater
  • Mill
  • Feed Area
  • Starch Modification
  • Refinery
  • Oil Processing
  • Ethanol Production
  • Fermentation/Bioprocessing
  • Waste Treatment

Oil and Gas

The two main areas in the oil and gas market are upstream operations such as exploration, recovery, storage, and transfer and downstream refining operations. Exploration for oil and gas includes offshore drilling rigs and land rigs. Downstream production includes the cracking of oil into transportation and fuel products and a variety of petrochemicals.

The exploration for oil and gas and downsteam processing utilizes Greerco high shear mixers, Kenics static mixers (ISO 3171), Chemineer rotating agitators, and Prochem side entering agitators throughout the processing steps.

Upstream Oil and Gas Mixing Applications

  • Mud Mixers
  • Wellbore Cement Mixers
  • Homogenization of Water in Crude Oil Custody Transfer Lines/LACT
  • Oil Storage/Basic Sediment and Water
  • Desalting
  • Oil Sands Mixers
  • Natural Gas (CO2 Reduction)

Downstream Oil and Gas Mixing Applications

  • Alkylation
  • Asphalt Cooling
  • Gasoline Blending
  • Coal Slurry Applications


Ethanol can be produced in dry or wet mills from a variety of raw materials such as corn, sugar cane, soybeans, switchgrass, corn stover, and cellulosic materials. Advances and research in ethanol continue to find new and more energy efficient ways to produce ethanol and biofuels and new raw materials for production.

Methyl esters, or biodiesel, uses vegetable oils or animal fats instead of petroleum as the basis for diesel fuel. These oils and fats go through a transesterification process with alcohol, catalyst, and feed oils such as sunflower, soybean, peanut, rapeseed, fish, and palm. Biodiesel fuels must meet ASTM D6 to be used in diesel engines.

Chemineer agitators and Kenics static mixers are used throughout all ethanol and biodiesel production processes. High-efficiency impellers and lower-pressure drop static mixers help reduce the energy footprint. Chemineer Application Engineers can assist with laboratory and pilot plant agitator and mixer designs, then follow with scale up to production facilities.

Ethanol Applications

  • Mash Slurry
  • Mash Cooker
  • Conversion Tank
  • Saccharification Tank
  • Flash Tanks
  • Stillage (Thin, Intermediate, Whole)
  • Prefermenter/Fermenters
  • Beer Well
  • pH Adjust
  • Alpha Amylase
  • AMG Enzyme
  • Cellulosic Ethanol

Biodiesel Applications

  • Degumming
  • Neutralization
  • Wet Soap Storage
  • Glycerine Processing
  • Oil Storage
  • Blend Tanks
  • Alcohol Storage
  • Methanol Recovery
  • Bleaching
  • Transesterification Reaction
  • Washing

Pulp and Paper

The pulp and paper market includes the manufacture of paper from a variety of woods and cellulosic material. The pulp mill also includes recovery, coating, and effluent treatment applications.

The major pulping processes in the mill include mechanical, semi-chemical, sulfite, sulfate, and defibrated and there is significant modifications to the processes in specific plants.

Prochem and Chemineer rotating agitators and Kenics static mixers are used in all areas of the pulp mill. Extensive field experience in all applications allows Chemineer to provide an optimum solution for your process and local service to help with operation questions and expansion plans.


  • Stock Chests (Dilution, Storage, Broke, Rejects, Blend, Dump, Machine, Equalizing, Latency)
  • High Density Towers
  • Blow Tanks
  • Couch and Press Pits
  • Bleaching Towers
  • Recovery Operations (Black Liquor, Green Liquor, Smelt, Dregs, Tall Oil, Lime)
  • Coatings (Clay Storage, Starch Slurry, TiO2, CaCO3, Dye, Polymer Make-Up)
  • Water Treatment (Whitewater storage)


The key to understanding the production process of synthetic plastic, rubber, or fiber lies in the four methods commercially used in polymer production: bulk, solution, suspension, and emulsion.

Chemineer agitators and Kenics static mixers and heat exchangers are used extensively in polymer and plastic production. Batch reactors, continuous processing, tubular reactors, and heat exchangers are used, often in combination, in polymer production plants.

General Polymer Applications

  • Bulk
  • Suspension
  • Emulsion
  • Solution

Types of Polymers:

  • PVC (Poly-Vinyl Chloride)
  • Polystyrene/ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene-Styrene)
  • Polyethylene
  • PTA (Purified Terephthalic Acid)
  • Polypropylene
  • Polyesters
  • Nylon
  • Bio-Degradable Plastics
  • Synthetic Rubber
  • Latex


Applications within the Chemical Processing Industry (CPI) are extensive. Thousands of products are produced, synthesized, reacted, and treated to help produce a variety of products.

There are several ways to classify applications in the CPI and, due to the high number of products, it is oftentimes easy to classify the application in general terms such as blending and motion, solids suspension, gas dispersion, heat/mass transfer, or a combination of these. Further, more specific, classifications include blend tanks, storage tanks, crystallizers, reactors, etc.

Chemineer and Prochem rotating agitators, Kenics static mixers, and Greerco high shear mixers are used throughout all phases and applications in the CPI.


  • Reactors
  • Hydrogenators
  • Storage Tanks
  • Heat Transfer
  • Make-up
  • Crystallizer
  • Multi-Stage
  • Draft Tubes


Industrial processes based on fermentation are a major, mixer intensive segment of the chemical process industries, and many products are produced via fermentation. Fermentation uses micro-organisms to convert carbon or nitrogen based raw materials into new products. The two main types of fermentation are:

  • Aerobic fermentations, which require the presence of oxygen, such as antibiotics, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, lysine, and yeasts
  • Anaerobic fermentations, which are carried out in the absence of oxygen, such as ethanol, beer, and biofuels


  • Seed Tanks
  • Inoculum Tanks
  • Aerobic Fermenters
  • Anaerobic Fermenters
  • Bio-Based Fermentation
  • Enzyme Production


The everchanging Biotechnology market is on the leading edge of technology changes. New products are continuously under development and agitation and mixing is used throughout the process. A process may require blending, solids handling, mass transfer, and solids and heat transfer. The scale for biotechnology reactors and support units ranges from a few liters to several cubic meters and from small laboratory units to large scale fermenters. Biotechnology applications also require vendors with strong R&D departments and laboratory facilities, polished and aseptic designs, easy drainability and cleanability designs, material validation, quality control programs specific to the project, and are able to meet governing specifications and directives such as FDA, USP, ASME-BPE, and cGMP requirements.

Chemineer, Kenics, and Greerco products are used throughout biotechnology applications. Chemineer has experience in designs including large fermenters with BT-6 impellers, small bottom entering bioreactors, Kenics static mixer heat exchangers and in-line tubular reactors, and Greerco high shear mixers. New mixing concepts such as CleanSweep, a concept that allows sealing of the tank contents without the use of mechanical seals, has been utilized in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

In addition to the process and mechanical requirements, quality control reports and material traceability is vital for the proper validation of the process. Chemineer can provide a quality control dossier specific to the project to enable the end-user to meet validation requirements and meet start-up and production requirements.

General Applications

Chemineer and Prochem rotating agitators, Greerco High Shear Mixers, and Kenics Static Mixers and Heat Exchangers are used for many applications and industries. The ChemScale is used for design purposes based on the problem classification of blending and motion, solids suspension, or gas Dispersion.

Additional applications for mixers and agitators include:

  • Food
  • Hazardous Waste
  • Paints and Coatings
  • Adhesives
  • Soybean Oil
  • Hydrogenators
  • Soaps and Detergents
  • Cosmetics

Mineral Processing

Mineral Processing includes recovery operations at a mine site and the associated processing plant. The processing operations involve the extraction of metal ores and minerals from the mined rock. Mines use mixers in Backfill or Water Treatment operation. Major applications involving mixers and agitators are found in the processing plant.

Concentrating or separating the metal from the ore is the goal for the processing plant. A variety of processing steps are used to concentrate the metal from the sulfide, concentrate the ions, and extract the metal from the solvent.

Chemineer and Prochem agitators and Kenics static mixers are used throughout the process. Chemineer provides high pressure seals, corrosion resistant wetted parts, and a wide range of impellers to perform specific functions in these applications.

Applications by end product

  • Base Metals: Aluminum, Copper, Lead, Iron, Tin, Zinc, Misc.
  • Precious Metals: Gold, Silver, Molybdenum, Platinum, Rare Earths
  • Non-Metallic: Phosphoric Acid, Potash, Clay, Magnesium Hydroxide/Mg(OH)2, Coal/Oil and Coil/Water Slurries
  • Gold Extraction (Carbon-in-Leach, Cyanide Leach, Autoclaves)
  • Silver (CIP, Cyanide Destruct)
  • Copper (Pumper Mixers, Solvent Extraction, Autoclaves)
  • Nickel (Autoclaves)
  • Lithium
  • Molybdenum
  • Potash
  • Phosphoric Acid
    • Attack Tanks (1st, Digester, Primary, Secondary, Final)
    • Recycle
    • Filter Feed
    • Pre-Mix
    • Phosphate and Flotation Agents
    • Phosphoric Acid Storage
  • Clay
  • Magnesium Hydroxide/Mg(OH)2

Applications by process

  • Pressure Oxidation Autoclaves
  • Ore leaching, Ore Leaching, Slurry Storage
  • Ore Conditioning (Flotation)
  • Solvent Extraction
  • Atmospheric Digestion (Attack Tanks, Circulators)
  • Pressure Digestion (Autoclaves)
  • Reagent and Waste Treatment operations
  • Non-metallic domestic operations

General Applications

Chemineer and Prochem rotating agitators, Greerco High Shear Mixers, and Kenics Static Mixers and Heat Exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications and industries. The ChemScale is used for design purposes based on the problem classification of Blending and Motion, Solids Suspension, or Gas Dispersion.

Additional applications for mixers and agitators include:

  • Food
  • Hazardous Waste
  • Paints and Coatings
  • Adhesives
  • Soy Bean Oil
  • Hydrogenators
  • Soaps and Detergents
  • Cosmetics

Computational Fluid Mixing

Computational Fluid Mixing (CFM) is a powerful tool used to mathematically model fluid flows of different agitator/impeller designs in mixing tanks and analyze mixing and reaction rates of chemicals and heat transfer.

Mixing of single and multi-phase fluids in stirred tank reactors is common in many industries. Understanding the fluid flow in these tanks is critical for equipment design, scale-up, process control, and economics. CFM models allow you to see what is taking place in the mixing vessel and then use that information to select the best agitator design for the desired outcome.

The flow patterns in stirred tanks are complex, making traditional CFM a time-consuming process. A CFM technician may need as many as three days to define all the equations and run the program. However, our proprietary techniques expedite this process. Chemineer engineers can obtain a two-dimensional CFM analysis in as little as 10 minutes and a 3D analysis in 3 to 4 hours.

Our analytical capabilities are not limited to just cylindrical stirred tanks. Our CFM technology can also be used to evaluate rectangular and side-entering agitated tanks and turbulent and laminar flow static mixers.

Chemineer's CFM models receive extensive validation using advanced experimental techniques. Chemineer is the first in the industry to use laser-based Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for mixing analysis. The unique data obtained with PIV further improves our modeling capabilities and provides you with the most accurate design for your agitation needs.

Digital Particle Image Velocimetry

Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) provides a better understanding of the flow phenomena occurring in mixing tanks. After using our unique process to film particle motion, our engineers analyze the data and design agitation equipment to fit your specific needs.

DPIV technology instantaneously measures the entire fluid velocity field in a tank, making it possible to study large-scale, time-dependent phenomena in the tank.

The image here shows the result of a series of full flow field measurements using DPIV. The color shows the local, time-averaged velocity. Fast-moving regions are colored red and slow-moving regions are colored blue. The pitched-blade turbine creates a mixed axial/radial flow pattern. The highest velocities are found at the impeller blade tip. The velocities at the liquid surface are an order of magnitude lower.

When used in conjunction with Computational Fluid Mixing (CFM), DPIV provides the most accurate application evaluation possible. Various mathematical models used by the CFM software must be validated to ensure the accuracy of the procedural results. DPIV analysis provides that validation with actual experimental data. If necessary, DPIV test data can be used to further improve CFM models, providing predictions with an even higher degree of accuracy.

Laser Doppler Anemometry

Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) is widely recognized as the best method of non-intrusively determining mean velocity and turbulence data with pinpoint accuracy. Chemineer uses the Dantec FlowLite turnkey measurement system to determine velocities in stirred tanks and static mixers.

This measurement technique relies on the fact that when two laser beams of the same wavelength cross, an interference pattern of bright and dark fringes is formed. As a single particle passes through the intersection of two such laser beams, it reflects light at certain frequencies which depends only on the velocity of the particle and the fringe spacing. Appropriate optical collection and data analysis enables highly accurate velocity measurements within extremely small volumes of fluid. Within minutes, thousands of particles may pass through the measurement volume, enabling an accurate determination of velocity at that point.

Chemineer uses these measurements to verify ChemScale and characterize specific impeller zones. This information may often be used with CFM to accurately determine the flow in the mixing vessel.

Laser-Induced Fluorescence

One of the most challenging problems in fundamental diagnostics is directly measuring mixedness. Limiting factors in traditional mixing systems include the intrusion of probes and the number of probes required to statistically determine mixedness. Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) analysis provides the user a fundamental, straightforward understanding of mixing.

One of the benefits of such an analysis is that both qualitative and quantitative assessments of mixing may be gained simultaneously. In static mixer systems, we have used this information to calculate a coefficient of variation while in stirred tanks, blend times have been measured. In either circumstance, the user gains a general understanding of the mixing mechanisms.

Chemineer Research and Development Labs

The Chemineer Research and Development (R&D) Laboratory is in Dayton, Ohio, and is broken down into two different areas: customer testing and R&D.

Customer Testing Facility

Not every application in mixing has been studied, and many applications are difficult to model computationally. As a result, it is sometimes necessary to scale down the problem and study it in the laboratory. Our Customer Testing facility houses an OSHA-compliant 144-square-foot hood used for a myriad of dynamic and static mixing applications. Available in our Customer Testing Facility are:

  • Dynamic Agitators
  • Impellers
  • Static Mixers
  • Centrifugal and Positive Displacement Pumps
  • Spargers

Research and Development Lab

The process design technology that works its way into our expert design programs comes from our continued research and development in the fields of mixing and agitation.

New products start in R&D and we are continually searching for highly efficient and cost-effective impellers, impeller systems, static mixers, and static mixer systems. We use various tools to assist us in evaluating the individual possibilities. These include:

  • DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry) and LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) to evaluate both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity vector fields
  • LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) for blending studies
  • CFM (Computational Fluid Mixing)
  • Full-scale vessels with strained gaged shafting for studying impeller hydraulic loads and power characteristics
  • Full-scale tanks for adequacy of scale-up rules as well as for the testing of new drives,
  • An apparatus that simultaneously provides a reading of torque and thrust
  • A wind tunnel for gas-gas blending, among other tools.

ChemScale: Optimum Turbine Agitator Selection

The ChemScale design procedure was developed to provide a logic for customers to quantify and define the agitation problem, specify required information for the design of an agitator, provide a communication tool for the customer and vendor to select a turbine agitator, and to optimize the agitator for the specific process at hand.

Applications of turbine agitators in the CPI (Chemical Process Industry) involve one or more of the following objectives: Combining process liquids of dissimilar composition and properties (Bulk Mixing), distributing reactants and products to promote desired reactions (Chemical Reaction), increasing convective motions adjacent to the transport surfaces (Heat Transfer), promoting contact between separate phases and different compositions (Mass Transfer), and dispersing immiscible liquids, suspending solids, or dispersing gases (Phase Interaction).

All the applications above involve the requirement for generating fluid motion to contact liquids, solids, or gases in a continuous liquid phase. These phases present in the liquid to agitate provides the means for the three main classifications of agitation problems:

Blending and Motion: Liquid in contact with another liquid

Solids Suspension: Solids in contact with a liquid

Gas Dispersion: Gas in contact with a liquid

In simple steps, the ChemScale design procedure involves: Classification of the Problem, Determine Size and Difficulty, and Determine the Process Result.

The Size of the problem is the “Equivalent Volume” and is calculated by the actual volume mixed in the vessel multiplied by the Specific Gravity of the liquid. Each Classifications has a separate “Difficulty” parameter as follows:

Classification Difficulty Parameter
Blending and Motion Maximum viscosity of the liquid phase to be agitated
Solids Suspension Settling rate of the solids particles
Gas Dispersion Superficial gas velocity which is the volumetric flow rate of the gas divided by the cross sectional area of the tank

The final step involves the selection of the required process result (or ChemScale). Each classification has a separate “ChemScale” parameter as follows:

Classification Difficulty Parameter
Blending and Motion Bulk fluid velocity
Solids Suspension Level of suspension
Gas Dispersion Degree of gas dispersion

Steps to determine the Process Result and ultimately the agitator size can be found on each of the Classification pages: Blending and Motion, Solids Suspension, and Gas Dispersion.

There are applications which may have all three phases (liquid, solids, and gas) in contact with another liquid. In these cases, the ChemScale design procedure can still be utilized for each category and it will normally establish the most difficult, and therefore controlling, problem to use for equipment selection.

Blending and Motion

Many different agitator applications fall into the category of Blending and Motion. Among these applications, simple liquid blending, liquid storage, heat transfer and batch reactors are some of the more common. The ChemScale design procedure emphasizes the common elements or turbine agitator design, but also does not neglect unique features of some applications. To express and quantify the common characteristics of blending problems, terms such as size, difficulty, and dynamic response are used throughout this procedure. For Blending and Motion problems, size is the equivalent volume, difficulty is the viscosity of the liquid, and dynamic response is the bulk fluid velocity. The Blending and Motion ChemScale design procedure is broken down as follows:

Category: The Blending and Motion ChemScale design procedure should be considered whenever the material to be
agitated is liquid or a combination of liquids. In some cases the Blending and Motion procedure is used when small quantities of solids or gases are present as finely divided materials which behave as if they were part of the liquid.

Size: The size of an agitator problem for the Blending and Motion ChemScale is the “Equivalent Volume”. Equivalent Volume is equal to the actual volume multiplied by the specific gravity.

Difficulty: Fluid viscosity is the ultimate resistance to fluid motion even in turbulent flow. By studying the effects of viscosity on liquid velocities and process results we can determine the appropriate relationship between fluid properties and agitator size, which is incorporated into the ChemScale design procedure.

Dynamic Response: The ultimate purpose of a turbine agitator is to achieve a desired process result. However it is often difficult to state the process result with precision, or to relate that result to one specific agitator. Therefore, the design logic begins with the selection of an appropriate dynamic response, followed by the design of agitators that will give that response.

The dynamic response for Blending and Motion applications is the Bulk Fluid Velocity. The Bulk Fluid velocity is calculated from the pumping capacity of the impellers divided by the cross sectional area of a square vessel of equal volume as the actual vessel. Extensive process experience has shown that the magnitude of the fluid velocity has a direct effect on the process results associated with the agitation intensity and that equal velocities generally result in similar “intensities” regardless of the batch size. A Bulk Fluid Velocity ranging from 6 to 60 ft/min characterizes the majority of applications of turbine agitators for Blending and Motion. For convenience and consistency a ChemScale level from 1 to 10 is assigned to the bulk fluid velocities associated with Blending and Motion applications as follows:

ChemScale= BulkFluidVelocity(ft/min)

Although ChemScale levels are related directly to bulk velocities, the real intent is to relate the agitation intensity to process results as shown in the table below. The utility of these definitions can be enhanced with application experience. Since ChemScale levels are based on fluid motion and process performance the design levels do not change for different impeller designs. The agitator selections, horsepower and speed combinations, will change based on the efficiency of the impeller. For Blending and Motion applications, high efficiency impellers such as the XE-3, HE-3, and SC-3, will provide the most optimum selection.

ChemScale Level Bulk Fluid Velocity(ft/min) Process Performance Description

ChemScale levels of 1 and 2 are characteristic of applications requiring minimal fluid velocities to achieve the process result.

Agitators capable of a ChemScale of 2 will:

  • Blend miscible fluids to uniformity if specific gravity differences are less than 0.1
  • Blend miscible fluids to uniformity if viscosity ratios are less than 100
  • Establish complete fluid batch control
  • Produce a flat by moving fluid surface

ChemScale levels of 3 to 6 are characteristic of the most common agitator applications in the Chemical Process Industries. Fluid velocities are sufficient to control minor variations in process conditions and achieve typical results.

Agitators capable of a ChemScale of 6 will:

  • Blend miscible fluids to uniformity if specific gravity differences are less than 0.6
  • Blend miscible fluids to uniformity if viscosity ratios are less than 10,000
  • Suspend trace solids (<2%) with settling rates of 2 to 4 ft/min
  • Produce surface rippling at lower viscosities
  • Provide sufficient motion for adequate heat transfer is all but the most severe situations

ChemScale levels of 7 to 10 are characteristic of applications requiring high fluid velocities to achieve the maximum practical intensities such as critical reactors.

Agitators capable of a ChemScale of 10 will:

  • Blend miscible fluids to uniformity if specific gravity differences are less than 1.0
  • Blend miscible fluids to uniformity if viscosity ratios are less than 100,000
  • Suspend trace solids (<2%) with settling rates of 4 to 6 ft/min
  • Produce surface surging motion at lower viscosities
  • Provides minimum practical blend time for the batch volume

The pumping capacity of an impeller system will ultimately determine the Bulk Fluid Velocity, and hence the ChemScale. Once the appropriate dynamic response (ChemScale) is chosen for the applications, the optimization of the impeller system is the next step. High Efficiency impellers will provide optimum performance provided the correct number and diameter are selected. As the viscosity increases larger impeller diameters and additional impellers may be beneficial to the process. Computational Fluid Mixing is beneficial in showing the differences between impeller types, locations, number of impellers, and viscosity effects (Impeller CFM).

Gas Dispersion

Category: The Gas Dispersion ChemScale design procedure should be considered whenever there is gas in contact with a liquid.

Size: The size of an agitator problem for the Gas Dispersion ChemScale is the “Equivalent Volume”. Equivalent Volume is equal to the actual volume multiplied by the specific gravity of the slurry.

Difficulty: The rate at which gas is sparged is the difficulty variable in submerged gas dispersion applications. This rate is the superficial gas velocity and is calculated by taking the sparged gas volumetric flow rate and dividing it by the cross sectional area of the tank.

Dynamic Response: The ultimate purpose of a turbine agitator is to achieve a desired process result. For Gas Dispersion applications, the dynamic response is the degree of Gas Dispersion and can be broken down fairly easy into the following categories:

No Gas Dispersion: Impeller is flooded (i.e. all the gas flows through the impeller and is not dispersed)

Complete Dispersion: Gas is completely dispersed to the tank wall

Uniform Dispersion: Gas is completely dispersed to the tank wall and circulated under the impeller

The ultimate role of a gas dispersion application is usually mass transfer. The agitator can affect the kla which will ultimately influence the mass transfer rate in the process.

Typical Gas Dispersion applications are:

  • Fermenters
  • Strippers

Solids Suspension

Solids Suspension applications are found in most industries is some form of another. The solids suspension procedure is used to ultimately provide an agitator to perform the process function.

Category: The Solids Suspension ChemScale design procedure should be considered whenever

Size: The size of an agitator problem for the Solids Suspension ChemScale is the “Equivalent Volume.” Equivalent Volume is equal to the actual volume multiplied by the specific gravity of the slurry.

Difficulty: Solids settling velocity is the difficulty parameter in solids suspension applications. The settling velocity is measured or calculated by using the particle size distribution, weight %, specific gravity, and the liquid specific gravity and viscosity.

Dynamic Response: The ultimate purpose of a turbine agitator is to achieve a desired process result. For solids suspension applications, the dynamic response if fairly easy to quantify and are broken down into the following categories:

Solids Motion: All solids are in motion on the tank, bottom but not completely suspended. Solids will build-up on the tank bottom over time if they do not dissolve

Off-Bottom Suspension: All solids are suspended off the tank bottom and will not accumulate over time

Uniform Suspension: All solids are suspended off the tank bottom and uniformly distributed throughout the tank

Anoxic Mixers

Anoxic Mixers are used in de-nitrification basins in wastewater treatment plants. The process involves the de-nitrification of waste streams with bacteria, breaking down the nitrate in the waste to use as an oxygen source. This breakdown of nitrate from the waste stream releases oxygen and nitrogen gas. The oxygen is then consumed by the bacteria and the nitrogen gas releases into the atmosphere. Once the waste stream has acceptable nitrogen levels, the water can be discharged into the environment (streams, ponds, lakes, etc.).

The basin is mixed but is not aerated, as the goal is for the bacteria to break down the nitrate to provide oxygen, rather than the dissolved oxygen in the waste stream itself, to the bugs. If dissolved oxygen is present in the waste stream, the bacteria will consume that oxygen first since it is readily available and provides more energy to the bacteria. This results in less nitrate broken down and more nitrogen in the effluent from the plant which may be above set limits.

Anoxic Mixers are designed to:

  • Suspend solids and provide complete basin control
  • Promote bacterial breakdown of nitrate so the nitrogen can escape
  • Eliminate air (oxygen) incorporation from the liquid surface (no swirl or vortex)

The Anoxic basin may contain fibrous material not screened out of the waste stream or stopped by the grinders in the front end of the waste treatment plant. This fibrous material has been found to agglomerate on hydrofoil (i.e. high efficiency) impellers, typically used in flow controlled applications. Replacing the hydrofoil impeller with the RL-3 Ragless Impeller will shed the fibrous material and prevent build-up, and therefore mechanical issues, with the mixer.

When the fibrous material builds up on hydrofoil impellers, the process flow pattern becomes more radial rather than axial in nature, typically resulting in a swirl or vortex on the top surface. This incorporates oxygen into the basin which the bacteria use first and less of the nitrate is used as an oxygen source. The RL-3 will maintain the strong axial flow pattern and performance of the agitator, eliminating the swirl/vortex on the top surface, and hence the incorporation of oxygen into the basin. This allows the bacteria to use nitrate as the primary source of energy and keeps the nitrogen levels in the effluent within permit levels.

High Shear Mixer Design

High Shear Mixer Applications:

  • Liquid/Liquid Dispersion
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Drilling Mud Make-Up
  • Creams and Lotions

Static Mixer Design

Static mixers are a low energy and efficient mixing device that can handle a wide range of applications. Kenics was the first static mixer produced and to this day is the leader in static mixer design and technology.

Static mixers are simple mixing devices effective in a variety of applications. The main requirement of static mixers is continuous flow. The static mixer uses energy from the flow to produce the desired mixing results for the process. All static mixers will consume energy and result in a pressure drop across the static mixer. The type of static mixer, number of elements, and the fluid Reynold’s Number are the primary drivers for static mixer pressure drop and mixer performance.

The two main variables for a static mixer is the mixer size and the number of elements. Typically, the line size is specified by the customer. Once the optimum static mixer element type is chosen, the number of elements required to perform the mixing process is chosen. This is usually a function of the Reynold’s Number of the fluid. Additional elements will produce better coefficients of variation.

Static Mixer General Applications:

  • Blending
  • Solids Suspension
  • Dispersion (Gas/Liquid and Liquid/Liquid)
  • Heat Transfer
  • Mass Transfer

Chemineer Express

We enhance the efficiency and profitability of your business with our process expertise and innovative technology. From wastewater to chemical processing and other industrial applications, we work with you from the start to develop integrated solutions with superior performance — maximizing your project lifecycle.

Service expertise drives predictable uptime, critical to your operation. In every situation, you can rely on us to provide quick and effective support for the life of your project. Our deep knowledge of your processes ensures you have the latest technology for your application to get the job done right, with trusted products you can depend on – first time, on time, every time.

By consistently providing reliable, technical solutions, we will help your business grow and provide you with the confidence you are looking for in a strategic partner.

The Right Part Every Time

We provide drop-in replacement parts of standard and custom Chemineer agitator components, minimizing installation problems like improper fit-up or alignment. Chemineer replacement parts are made to original equipment specifications to ensure maximum reliability of your mixing equipment.

Technical Support

Our Services and Aftermarket team is just a phone call away. Whether you need assistance with installation, startup, maintenance, or replacement parts, our technical experts are ready to help.

Field Service is ready to assist your crew with installation, troubleshooting, reliability audits, or maintenance and operator training in your facility.

For After-Hours Emergency Call +1-937-454-3292

Onsite Services

  • Supervisory: Guidance provided to your existing maintenance crew on proper installation and maintenance procedures
  • Installation: Complete installation of Mixing Technologies equipment
  • Service Agreements: Contract for routine maintenance services
  • Reliability Audits: Review of current mixing equipment with recommendations for mechanical and process improvements and critical spares planning
  • Condition Monitoring/Trouble Shooting: Assistance with vibration analysis, CFD modeling and mechanical failure analysisChemineer Express technical support is just a phone call away. Whether you need assistance with install

Service Centers

We offer multiple options to get your process back up and running. Highly-Trained Field Service Engineers are ready to deploy for assisting maintenance crews in repair, diagnostic, and/or maintenance work. A Services & Aftermarket Authorized Service Center is located near your plant for quick responsiveness backed by the full support of the NOV manufacturing facility.

Our Service Center is located in the NOV manufacturing facility for more extensive failure analysis, fast replacement parts assemblies, and the most reliable agitator repair service in the world. New & Refurbished parts options are available to suit your business requirements and get equipment back into operation.

We offer Customer Service Plans tailored to fit your needs. Contact your local representative or NOV (937-454-3300), or click here, to discuss your Service Plan needs.

Carl Eric Johnson
5385 Gateway Blvd., Suite 6
Lakeland, FL 33811
[email protected]

DXP Enterprises
11270 Cornell Park Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45242
[email protected]

Brown & Morrison, Ltd.
14201 South Lakes Drive, Suite D
Charlotte, NC 28273
[email protected]

121 S. Lombard Rd.
Addison, IL 60101
[email protected]

1755 Tchopitoulas St
New Orleans LA, 70130
T: 225-756-5472
[email protected]

Chemineer UK

Our state-of-the-art NOV manufacturing facility is housed in Manchester, UK and the site were formerly a British Aerospace aircraft manufacturing facility. The 337,300 site sq. ft. space has been transformed into a machining, assembly, testing and R&D facility. This world-class centre houses Mono™ progressive cavity pumps and grinders, as well as Chemineer™, Kenics™ and Greerco™ mixing equipment.

Our Application and Design Engineering Teams are all based at our Manchester manufacturing facility. Our customer service and project management teams support the manufacturing facility and help liaise with our customer.


  • ISO9001 Quality Management Systems
  • ISO14001 Environmental
  • ATEX, CE, and PED Module H
  • Aramco Approved Facility

Chemineer U.S.

The Chemineer offices and factory in Dayton, Ohio serve the North American, South American and Asian markets. Dayton is in southwest Ohio, near Cincinnati. Our Dayton facility is five miles from the Dayton airport and 70 miles from the Cincinnati airport. Close proximity to major highways allow easy access to our facility.


  • Design and Engineer standard and custom mixers for a wide range of applications
  • Manufacture all principal components of mixers including gearboxes, seal components, shafts and impellers.
  • High quality machining and welding in all common and most exotic metals.

Chemineer China

Chemineer China has a sales and marketing office located in Shanghai, China with fully staffed Application Engineers for design of Chemineer, Prochem, Kenics and Greerco products. All design utilizes Chemineer Expert Design System (CEDS), consistent with global systems.

Manufacturing is located in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. The China facility was founded in 2002, which becomes the center for assembly, manufacturing and field service to support the business development in China.


  • Purchasing
  • Detailed Engineering
  • Inventory
  • Machining
  • Assembly
  • Testing
  • Field Service
  • Global Parts Supply


  • ISO9001:2008
  • ISO14001
  • Member of Standing Council of National Communication Network Center of Fluid Mixing Technology
  • SINOPEC Qualified Supplier

Chemineer China
Building 4, 1250 Sicheng Road
Jiading District, Shanghai 201801
People's Republic of China
tel: 86-21-61240001
fax: 86-21-61240002
[email protected]

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