To ensure a robust and uninterrupted service performance, it is paramount to select the material for each layer that meets the given flexible pipe design conditions best. Using PipeFlex, our proprietary in-house design software package, we select the correct combination of materials by taking into consideration the specified service conditions, including the chemical composition of the conveyed fluid, pressure, temperature, water depth, and a range of other factors affecting the flexible pipe design.
Throughout the manufacturing processes, exacting procedures ensure full traceability of all materials used for the flexible pipe structure, including end fittings. Thus, complete material and manufacturing records are included in the Manufacturing Data Book, which we provide you upon completion of your projects.
High-performance steel is literally at the core of our flexible pipe solutions. When selecting the correct steel grade for the various reinforcement layers of a flexible pipe cross-section and end-fitting components, we always consider a number of critical design factors, such as flow regime, chemical composition of the conveyed fluid/gas, partial pressures, mechanical stress, operating temperature, design life, etc.
To ensure optimal control and steel quality for tensile and pressure armor wires, our supply chain uses a partnering strategy with suppliers at every stage, from ore quality over steel formulation to rolling and shaping methodologies. In addition to the obvious benefits of partnering—ease of communication, agility in production changes, improved documentation, etc.—our close working relationship with suppliers allows us to offer a wide range of steel grades, from steel suitable for armor used in hyper-aggressive environments to large-scale deliveries of steel optimized for deepwater applications.
In addition to the products specifically formulated for Flexibles, the following standard material grades may be applied:
- Carcass: AISI 316L/Lean Duplex 2101, 2102/Duplex 2205/SuperDuplex 2507/AL-6XN+, etc.
- End fitting: AISI 4130 60K, AISI 8630H, ASTM A182 F22, ASTM A350 LF2, ASTM A694 F48/F52/F65, ASTM A707 L3/L4
Depending on the specified service conditions, we use a variety of thermoplastic polymer grades to provide a leak-proof inner liner as an effective barrier against the conveyed liquid. As a fundamental design principle and regardless of polymeric material, we extrude the inner liner as one single layer. This prevents the potential failure mode of pressure buildup of permeated gases between multiple layers of inner liner, and it ensures a proper transfer of axial loads between pipe layers. When applied in a single layer, the outer sheath follows the same design principle as the inner liner. However, the outer sheath may also be applied in two separate layers depending on the specific application.